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success very largely to his personality. Much attention was
certainly paid to the selection of the subjects taught and to right
methods of teaching, but neither curriculum nor methods had
yet hardened into a rigid system, as they tended to do elsewhere
in the next half-century. It was possible, therefore, for Vittorino
to direct the various activities of the school to the production of
fine scholars, who were good citizens with a lofty sense of social
obligation and at the same time highly developed along the line
of their own special talents.

There were other schools like that of Vittorino, but in no other
was there such a perfect embodiment of the educational ideals
of the renaissance. In spite of the insistence on the idea of
training the complete man and the dutiful citizen by means of a
liberal education through the ancient literatures, which is repeated
in a long succession of tractates on education, later schools show
a falling away from the standard set up by Vittorino. The be-
ginnings of this declension are evident in his contemporary and
friend, Guarino of Verona (1374-1460). Apart from the fact
that Guarino had the inestimable privilege of learning Greek
for five years in the household of Chrysoloras, the course of his
life was very much like that of Vittorino. He studied under
Giovanni of Ravenna, came under the influence of Vergerio,
taught in school and university, and ended his career at the head
of a court school at Ferrara. And yet with all this, as even his
contemporaries remarked, his educational outlook was different
from Vittorino's. For him, instruction in the classical literatures
was already on the way to being regarded as an end in itself
instead of simply a means to the all-round development of the
good man.

Guarino's point of view can best be understood from the
short treatise On the Method of Teaching and of Reading the
Classical Authors^ written by his youngest son in exposition of
his father's practice. The very pre-occupation with questions
of method, even if it represents a development of Guarino's
ideas rather than his actual views, is significant. It was quite
natural that such questions should arise. Nevertheless, it in-
dicated a concern about the form of instruction which tended
to reduce the subject-matter to a position of secondary importance.
That in Guarino's case there was this loss of contact with the
realities of life is evident from the insistence on particular